A hospital theatre in the first half of the 19th century was a grim place. Surgery was not only painful but had devastating effect on patients because effective anesthetics were unknown. Operating tables were equipped with straps and buckles to tie down patients. Their writhing and screaming with pain turned the hospital into an undesirable place. The hospital’s doctors had a frosty relationship with patients because of the excruciating surgery pains.
One faithful day in October, 1845, a breakthrough was recorded in the hospital that brought the patients and the entire world out of the agony. A celebrated surgeon,